13.a. Interlinear transcription: examples with morpheme-by-morpheme glosses should be set according to international standards.
Translation either follows directly below the citation and the interlinear transcription if the example does not exceed one line (see below). If the example is longer, the translation follow under the whole citation with a space of one line. The translation should be in single quotation marks.
Studies on all languages and dialects are welcome.
Contributions from both established figures in the
field as well as newer scholars are welcome.
Abbreviations and symbols
0. Introductory remarks
Geo- and sociolinguistic data. Previous studies.
1.3. Diphthongs, ..
1.4. Suprasegmentals, tones, prosodic phenomena, autosegmentals, accent, intonation
2.1. Nominal morphology
2.1.1. Noun (with a list of nominal grammatical categories)
22.214.171.124. Personal pronouns
126.96.36.199. Interrogative pronouns
188.8.131.52. Indefinite pronouns
184.108.40.206. Quantitative pronouns (all, every, ...)
2.1.4. Adjectives (comparison of in/equality, ...)
(220.127.116.11. Adverbs, spatial, temporal, causal, degree adverbs, ...)
2.1.5. Nominal categorizers (nominalizers, augmentatives/diminuitives)
2.2. Verbal morphology (with a list of verbal grammatical categories)
18.104.22.168. Personal affixes (in case of multidimensional paradigms -> illustrative sample paradigm)
22.214.171.124. TAM-system (basic tense-aspect-mood categories: imperfective, perfect, resultative, future, imperative, prohibitive, optative, conditional, potential (or non-fact), ...)
2.2.2. Verbal categorizers (de/transitivizers, verbalizers, anti/causativizers, voice... )
2.2.3. Verbal modifyers (participals, converbs, masdars,
3.1. Sentence types (copular, verbal clauses)
3.2. Simple sentence (word order: position of the main constituents inside the clause, position inside the main constituents, ...; grammatical relations, subject- or topic-prominent language)
3.3. Complex sentences
3.3.1. Coordination (conjuction, disjunction, juxtaposition, coordinators)
3.3.2. Subordination (relative, adverbial (temporal, causal, final, purpose, conditional, concessive, ..), complement clauses, ...)
3.4. Discourse phenomena (Coreference, ... controller and target of omission in adverbial, complement, relative ... clauses)
(3.4.1. Particles, discourse particles, negative
particles, interjections, ...)
4. Sample texts with interlinear
translation and free translation
Languages of the World /Text Collections (LW/T)
1) The texts are transcribed by a footnote analysis and a free translation. Morphemic analyses are transferred to the footnote analysis. The text is analysed sentence by sentence.
2) An introductory chapter explains the main typological features of the language, followed by a chapter with some examples and paradigms which can be referred to in the footnote analysis.
3) An index of the most frequent items is added which are not explained in the footnote analysis (with the exeption of the first texts).
4) The texts are presented in two parts, the first with a most explicit analysis, and the second with a reduced analysis and back-references of items to part 1. Evtly. a third part with a minimal analysis follows.
5) The footnote analysis is on the same page as the text and its free translation. The morpheme analysis is transferred to the footnote analysis, which also allows statements on etymological developments of lexemes or morphemes, and also statements on formal as well on functional issues. (see ex. pakupaku in 3. which on the formal levels exhibits REDuplication and on the functional level HABitualis).
6) Critical morphemic analysis should be stated in the footnote analysis.
7) Each issue contains an endnote section. More complex explanations should be transferred to the endnotes.
8) Each issue contains a section with a collection
of frequently used morphemes and words which are not analyzed
in teh footnote analysis.
1) Mainly text collections on languages where survey is urgently needed are published in the LW/T series, functioning as a data storage for future analyses, but also for illustration of the analyses given in the accompanying LW/M issues. Text collections on other languages and on dialects are accepted as well.
2) Various text sorts (if available) should be presented, also
3) texts with ethnohistorical relevance and
4) texts from various speakers (if available).
5) The single issues of the LW/T series should also be appropriate for language courses and seminars.
6) The origin of the data should be noted.
7) In case of multilingualism, some texts of all other languages spoken should be presented.
8) Special texts could be chosen for the demonstration
of language specific phenomena, such as temporal or spatial relations,
honorific systems etc. (also "artificial" texts produced
by parametric variation, narratives produced after videos or drawings,
C: Style Sheet
See the Style Sheet of the LW/M series (the number
of pages is limited to 50 - 100).
Teop, Austronesian, Bougainville, Papua New Guinea
Interviewer: Ruth Saovana Spriggs, compiler: Ulrike Mosel, University of Kiel
Date: July 1994
All issues of the LINCOM Coursebooks in Linguistics series
should consist of 16-20 units (ca. 160-200pp.), all clearly presented,
with examples and exercises. Each issue should support the curriculum,
featuring either traditional topics or new approaches to linguistic
disciplines, taught at academic courses of an undergraduate or
an advanced level.
All issues of the LINCOM Language Coursebooks series should
be designed for university students taking the language as a minor
or subsidiary subject, or in preparation for research. It can
be completed in a year by a student giving a third of his or her
time to the language. No previous experience of formal language
learning is presupposed, and the course can be folowed with or
without a teacher. All chapters should be clearly presented, with
examples and exercises, and should be written by authors who have
long teaching experience in the respective language.
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